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Identification of the Potential Bio-active Proteins Associated with Wound Healing Properties in Snakehead Fish (Channa striata) Mucus

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 4 ]


Soon Hong Kwan and Mohd Nazri Ismail*   Pages 299 - 312 ( 14 )


Background: Channa striata is a freshwater snakehead fish that is abundantly available in South East Asia. Proteins available in the C. striata's mucus have been confirmed to contribute towards wound healing enhancement, yet the biologically active proteins within are poorly understood.

Objective: The main objective was to identify the potential proteins in the C. striata’s mucus that possibly contributed to the wound healing enhancement. Besides, the post-translational modifications (PTMs) were included as well to complement the protein list for better understanding of those proteins.

Method: Proteins were fractionated using liquid fractionation system prior to mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. LTQ-Orbitrap Velos Pro mass spectrometer was utilised to identify the proteins available in the sample. The data generated were then compared with the Uniprot Actinopterygii database to identify the proteins and PTMs available.

Results: Fifty-three and 120 unique proteins in the crude mucus sample and fractionated sample were identified respectively. Interesting proteins such as histones, ribosomal proteins, protein S100, heat shock protein, proteolytic enzymes, heparin cofactor II and group of uncharacterized proteins were identified and discussed thoroughly. Besides, 39% of the proteins identified were post-translational modified. Methylation, hydroxylation, acetylation, ubiquitin and biotinylation were the PTMs detected.

Conclusion: The proteins and PTMs profiling of the C. striata mucus serve as a preliminary report and foundation for future in-depth exploration of the species. These results serve as a fundamental preliminary report on the mucus of C. striata, which provides insights for harvesting the bio-active proteins for drug production and medication purposes in the future.


Channa striata, mass spectrometry, mucus, proteomics, post-translational modifications, wound healing.


Analytical Biochemistry Research Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, USM, Penang, Analytical Biochemistry Research Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, USM, Penang

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