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Proteomic Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid: A Search for Biomarkers of Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Johanna Pedroza-Díaz*, Tania Paola Luján Chavarria, Carlos Horacio Muñoz Vahos, Diego Francisco Hernández Ramírez, Elizabeth Olivares-Martínez, Gloria Vásquez, Luis Llorente, Hilda Fragoso-Loyo, Sarah Röthlisberger and Blanca Lucía Ortiz Reyes   Pages 110 - 118 ( 9 )

Abstract:


Background: Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus or NPSLE, as its name suggests, refers to the neurological and psychiatric manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). In clinical practice, it is often difficult to reach an accurate diagnosis, as this disease presents differently in different patients, and the available diagnostic tests are often not specific enough.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to search for proteomic biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid that could be proposed as diagnostic aids for this disease.

Methods: The proteomic profile of cerebrospinal fluid samples of 19 patients with NPSLE, 12 patients with SLE and no neuropsychiatric manifestation (SLEnoNP), 6 patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms but no SLE (NPnoSLE), 5 with Other Autoimmune Disorders without neuropsychiatric manifestations (OADs), and 4 Healthy Controls (HC), were obtained by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and compared using ImageMaster Platinum 7.0 software.

Results: The comparative analysis of the different study groups revealed three proteins of interest that were consistently over-expressed in NPSLE patients. These were identified by mass spectrometry as albumin (spot 16), haptoglobin (spot 160), and beta-2 microglobulin (spot 161).

Conclusion: This work is one of the few proteomic studies of NPSLE that uses cerebrospinal fluid as the biological sample. Albumin has previously been proposed as a potential biomarker of rheumatoid arthritis and SLE, which is coherent with these results; but this is the first report of haptoglobin and beta-2 microglobulin in NPSLE, although haptoglobin has been associated with increased antibody production and beta-2 microglobulin with lupus nephritis.

Keywords:

Biomarkers, cerebrospinal fluid, mass spectrometry, neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus, proteomics, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

Affiliation:

Instituto Tecnologico Metropolitano-ITM-, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Aplicadas, Grupo de Investigacion e Innovacion Biomedica GI2B, Medellín, Universidad de Antioquia, Facultad de Medicina, Grupo de Inmunologia Celular e Inmunogenetica-GICIG-, Medellin, Universidad de Antioquia, Facultad de Medicina, Grupo de Reumatologia Universidad de Antioquia - GRUA-, Medellín, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Department of Immunology & Rheumatology, Mexico DF, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Department of Immunology & Rheumatology, Mexico DF, Universidad de Antioquia, Facultad de Medicina, Grupo de Inmunologia Celular e Inmunogenetica-GICIG-, Medellin, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Department of Immunology & Rheumatology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Department of Immunology & Rheumatology, Mexico DF, Instituto Tecnologico Metropolitano-ITM-, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Aplicadas, Grupo de Investigacion e Innovacion Biomedica GI2B, Medellín, Universidad de Antioquia, Facultad de Medicina, Grupo de Inmunologia Celular e Inmunogenetica-GICIG-, Medellin

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