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Bioinformatics and Therapeutic Insights on Proteins in Royal Jelly

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Md. Sakib Hossen, Taebun Nahar, Siew Hua Gan* and Md. Ibrahim Khalil*   Pages 84 - 101 ( 18 )

Abstract:


Background: To date, there is no x-ray crystallography or structures from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on royal jelly proteins available in the online data banks. In addition, characterization of proteins in royal jelly is not fully accomplished to date. Although new investigations unravel novel proteins in royal jelly, the majority of a protein family is present in high amounts (80-90%).

Objective: In this review, we attempted to predict the three-dimensional structure of royal jelly proteins (especially the major royal jelly proteins) to allow visualization of the four protein surface properties (aromaticity, hydrophobicity, ionizability and (hydrogen (H)-bond) by using bioinformatics tools. Furthermore, we gathered the information on available therapeutic activities of crude royal jelly and its proteins.

Methods: For protein modeling, prediction and analysis, the Phyre2 web portal systematically browsed in which the modeling mode was intensive. On the other side, to build visualized understanding of surface aromaticity, hydrophobicity, ionizability and H-bond of royal jelly proteins, the Discovery Studio 4.1 (Accelrys Software Inc.) was used.

Results: Our in silico study confirmed that all proteins treasure these properties, including aromaticity, hydrophobicity, ionizability and (hydrogen (H)-bond. Another finding was that newly discovered proteins in royal jelly do not belong to the major royal jelly protein group.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the three dimensional structure of royal jelly proteins along with its major characteristics were successfully elucidated in this review. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the detailed physiochemical properties and pharmacotherapeutics of royal jelly proteins.

Keywords:

Royal jelly, proteins, bioinformatics, in silico, pharmacology, crystallography.

Affiliation:

Laboratory of Preventive and Integrative Biomedicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342, Laboratory of Preventive and Integrative Biomedicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342, School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Laboratory of Preventive and Integrative Biomedicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342

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